Definitions of Value

The following definitions of value values are described in the publication Valuing Machinery and Equipment: The Fundamentals of Appraising Machinery & Technical Assets, Third Edition, by the American Society of Appraisers.

Reproduction Cost New is the cost of reproducing a new replica of a property on the basis of current prices with the same or closely similar materials, as of a specific date.

Replacement Cost New is the current cost of a similar new property having the nearest equivalent utility as the property being appraised, as of a specific date.

Fair Market Value is an opinion expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date.

Fair Market Value - Removed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering removal of the property to another location, as of a specific date.

Fair Market Value in Continued Use with Assumed Earnings is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and assuming that the business earnings support the value reported, without verification.

Fair Market Value in Continued Use with an Earnings Analysis is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and supported by the earnings of the business.

Fair Market Value – Installed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering market conditions for the asset being valued, independent of earnings generated by the business in which the property is or will be installed, as of a specific date.

Orderly Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a liquidation sale, given a reasonable period of time to find a purchaser (or purchasers), with the seller being compelled to sell on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date.

Forced Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a properly advertised and conducted public auction, with the seller being compelled to sell with a sense of immediacy on an as-is, where-is basis as of a specific date.

Liquidation Value in Place is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money that typically could be realized from a properly advertised transaction, with the seller being compelled to sell, as of a specific date, for a failed, non-operating facility, assuming that the entire facility is sold intact.

Salvage Value is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that may be expected for the whole property or a component of the whole property that is retired from service for possible use, as of a specific date.

Scrap Value is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that could be realized for the property if it were sold for its material content, not for a productive use, as of a specific date.

The definitions presented above provide fundamental value concepts for appraising machinery and equipment. They may be expanded by contract, or laws of a country, state, region or regulatory agency. A common example of this are value definitions used in insurance contracts. For example:

Insurance Cost New is the replacement or reproduction cost new as defined in the insurance policy less the cost new of the items specifically excluded in the policy, as of a specific date.

Insurable Value Depreciated is the insurance replacement or reproduction cost new less accrued depreciation considered for insurance purposes, as defined in the insurance policy or other agreements, as of a specific date.


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